چگونه تبدیل به یک مدرس زبان انگلیسی شویم؟
اگر شما عاشق زبان انگلیسی، عاشق تدریس، و عاشق آدمها هستید میتوانید مدرس خوبی شوید. شروع به تدریس زبان انگلیسی به دو پیشنیاز اصلی نیاز دارد: ۱. دانش قابل قبولی از زبان انگلیسی؛ ۲. آشنایی با اصول تدریس. با کمک منابع و راهنماییهایی که در این سایت در اختیار شما قرار داده شده است شما میتوانید به هر دوی آنها دست یابید. در این قسمت با چند نمونه از مباحث مورد نیاز برای تدریس زبان انگلیسی آشنا میشوید (برای تهیه جزوه کامل تربیت مدرس زبان انگلیسی اینجا را کلیک کنید).
یک سری اصول تدریس در آموزش زبان انگلیسی همانند دیگر رشتهها وجود که از اهمیت بالایی برخوردارند. هرگونه تصمیمی که در کلاس گرفته میشود و یا هر فعالیتی طراحی میشود باید بر اساس این اصول باشد. این اصول که از منابعی همچون زبانشناسی، روششناسی آموزش زبان انگلیسی، روانشناسی زبان گرفته شدهاند، هم به خود زبان انگلیسی به عنوان یک زبان بینالمللی و هم به تدریس آن میپردازند. در اینجا تنها به سه مورد آن اشاره میکنیم.
PRINCIPLE ONE: TEACHING LEARNING
One problem most language learners face is that they are confused about how to learn the language. Much of learning the language happens outside the class; therefore, learner’s autonomy should be one of the teacher’s main concerns. For example, instead of memorizing words in wordlists, learning new words with their collocations in appropriate contexts should be encouraged. There are some misconceptions and myths in language learning that you, as a qualified teacher, are to dispel:
- We can learn a foreign language in just a few months;
- We need to have separate plans to learn the four major skills separately (e.g., improving writing has nothing to do with reading);
- We always need to be corrected for any single mistake we make, for example, in writing;
- All learning happens just inside the class.
A good teacher also knows about the psychology of language learning. Facts such as:
- Every individual is different, so they learn things differently;
- Making mistakes is perfectly natural for the learning process;
- Comprehension is so far ahead of production;
- Any temporal interruption in language learning can take a heavy toll on the learning process;
- Language learning takes a lot of time and effort, so they need to be patient and not lose hope.
PRIINCIPLE TWO: REPETITION THE BASIS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING
Roughly speaking, a given word in any language consists of a spoken form, a written form, and meaning. Take the word ‘door’ in English. No logic whatsoever exists to establish the relations between /dɔ:r/, ‘door,’ and ‘that object in the world this word refers to.’ The relationship between these three components are totally arbitrary and conventional:
The connection between these three components is established properly only when the paths are repeated enough. In other words, learning a language is NOTHING but repetition. This repetition has to have three important features: (1) it should be meaningful – repeating phrases or sentences without having a clear meaning in mind in a parrot-like fashion is plain ineffective; (2) it should take different forms – having choral repetition, copying sentences both in speaking and in writing, hearing through listening, etc.; and (3) it should happen over a fairly long period of time without any interruption.
PRINCIPLE THREE: ABSOLUTELY NOTHING ABSOLUTE IN (TEACHING) ENGLISH
Millions of people in different countries are using English to communicate. Language is dynamic and subject to change, since people, the users of this language, are dynamic and subject to change. There are many different dialects in the U.S. alone, where people may use different words or even grammatical structures in English. For instance, a sentence like ‘Nobody doesn’t like me,’ might be grammatically inaccurate, in that ‘double negatives’ are not allowed in standard English, but it is considered not wrong in some dialects. Or the word ‘handsome’ might be used to describe a ‘car,’ or the same word might be pronounced differently in different places. To determine which meaning of a word, which pronunciation of a word, which function of a grammatical structure should be taught, only the “norm” is the most logical benchmark. In teaching any aspect of the language, words such as ‘generally,’ ‘in general,’ and ‘usually’ should be used unsparingly.
On the other hand, no one can claim that “this way of teaching this grammar is the best ever,” since teaching English is very “subjective.” There is NOT any BEST method to fit all contexts for all learners under all conditions.
A step-by-step teaching sample (a lesson plan) – (Top Notch 2; intermediate)
Imagine we are going to work on a grammar task which is about ‘present perfect’:
You need to start with an activity which brings about communication. This is essential for creating the context. To start, write these words on the board (put some distance between each item because you are going to add something). As you are writing them, ask your students to repeat the phrases:
a famous person
a foreign country
a famous movie
a historical place
Then for each item, ask these questions. You can write these questions below each item:
Have you seen any famous person before? Can you name one?
Have you been to any foreign country? Which countries?
What is your favorite movie?
Have you visited any historical place?
What is the name of the best book you have read?
For each question, your students give some answers. Upon what they say, try to ask more questions to keep the communication going. For example, if someone says the name of a famous person, say: “Really? When? Where did you see him?” Then give them, let’s say, five minutes to talk in pairs about these questions. While they are talking in pairs, walk around and monitor them for any problem.
After a few minutes, choose a few more confident students and ask about their partners. Then write a few of their answers on the board (their sentences might not be grammatically accurate. Correct them and write them down on the board). For example:
She has seen a famous actor.
You have visited France.
I have gone to Pasargad.
All of you have seen Titanic.
I have read the Alchemist.
Have them repeat the sentences a couple of times, especially ‘have/has p.p.’ Refer to the questions and their related answers repeatedly and ask your students to repeat as well. For example, write on the board:
“Have you seen a famous person?” “Yes, she has. She has seen a famous actor.”
In all the examples, underline ‘have/has p.p’ on the board and introduce present perfect. Avoid giving explanations like “present perfect is about an action that happened in the past and its result is still true until the present time.” They are simply not understandable and cause confusion. If you see that some of your students still have problem understanding present perfect, give them the smooth translation of the examples and say: present perfect is when we want to say in Farsi:
دیدهام، رفتهاند، خواندهای، انجام دادهایم، و…
Finally, you can move to the grammar exercise given by the textbook.
At this stage, you can ask your students to repeat the same activity done in the warm-up part in pairs (talking about ‘a famous person,’ ‘a historical place,’ etc.). But this time, ask them to use present perfect more accurately. Again, walk around and monitor them. Here, try to be more sensitive about their mistakes.